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The Exporters’ Pocketbook

Uploaded by palma on Oct 09, 2000

Sam Vaknin's Psychology, Philosophy, Economics and Foreign Affairs Web Sites

I. The Export Transaction and its Documents

The Transaction

Finding a market for the goods (market research)

Selecting the marketing channels



Distribution channels



Commercial Invoice

Commercial Invoice must include (minimum):

Payment Terms

Mode of Payment

Division of Costs

Details of Carrier

Details of Receiving Party

Details of Buyer

Other Details

For best results use the ECE (Economic Commission for Europe) Standard Commercial Invoice

Packing List must include (minimum):

Contents of the Packaging (=of the shipment)

If more than one package or outer and inner packing – all contents per each packing and per each package must be detailed separately

Permits and Licenses

Export licenses if needed

Standards certificates


Quality control certificates (highest is ISO, such as ISO-9002 or ISO-9000)

Health and phytosanitary certificates

Veterinary certificates

Other permits, licenses and certificates

Service Providers

Marine Transport

Air Transport

Land Transport (lorry, train)



Banking and other Financial Services (factoring, forfeiting, etc.)

Airway Bill of Lading (ABL)

(More details later – see appendices for samples)

Holder of ABL does not own goods

Air Transport Contract not effected – but ABL proof of existence of such contract, including weight, measurements, number of packages and invoice.

Marine Bill of Lading (MBL)

Proof of receipt of goods in a certain condition

Proof of existence of transport contract

MBL facilitates the transfer of ownership

Negotiable, transferable and assignable

Subject to the Hague conditions and MUST INCLUDE:

  • Name and address of sender
  • Port of loading and Port of discharge
  • Date of lading and place of issuance of bill of lading
  • Name of vessel and number of voyage
  • Identity marks of cargo
  • Description of goods – number of packing units, weight, volume
  • Condition of goods – statement of carrier (if not stated – the goods are in good condition)
  • “Clean on Board” not “Foul”
    Types of Bills of Lading (BL)

    Shipped BL – Goods are on deck of ship

    Received for Shipment – Prior to loading onto ship

    Direct BL – From origin to destination, transshipment not allowed

    Ocean Through BL – In case of transit involving a few carriers. In such a case, each carrier imposes its own conditions on each leg of the voyage and for the limited duration it handles the cargo.

    Pure Through BL – First carrier must transport from port of loading to a mid-point and is responsible for...

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    Uploaded by:   palma

    Date:   10/09/2000

    Category:   Business and Economics

    Length:   45 pages (10,090 words)

    Views:   1656

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