You have found the "BEST" Term Paper site on the Planet!

We GUARANTEE that you’ll find an EXEMPLARY College Level Term Paper, Essay, Book Report or Research Paper in seconds or we will write a BRAND NEW paper for you in just a FEW HOURS!!!

150,000+ Papers

Find more results for this search now!

Please enter a keyword or topic phrase to perform a search.
Need a Brand New Custom Essay Now?  click here

Policy instruments - taxation, spending and regulation

Uploaded by summersso on May 04, 2002

Does the choice of Policy instruments (taxation; spending and regulation) involve both the "means" and "ends" of policy development? Discuss.

Governments have at their disposal a selection of instruments with which they can implement their policies. Amongst them, are the policy instruments of taxation, spending and regulation, mentioned in this essay title. I intend in this paper to discuss the various policy instruments, their pros and cons, the central concepts of ‘means’ and ‘ends’, and then examine the competing rationales for policy instrument choice. I expect then to be in a situation to be able to conclude with an example of government policy that uses the variety of policy instruments available in an effort to achieve its ends.

There exists a continuum of governing instruments with varying degrees of legitimate concern at the hands of government. At one end are extortion and persuasion, with the instruments of spending, taxation, regulation in that order leading the maximum degree, that of state ownership or nationalisation. Within the scale there also exists a classification of the various instruments available within the framework of voluntary instruments, such as family and community, then mixed instruments which include provision of information and taxation, and at the top end, where the level of state involvement is highest, compulsory instruments such as regulation and direct provision. Lester Salamon and Michael Lund suggest, quite rightly, that the different instruments involve varying degrees of effectiveness, efficiency, equity, legitimacy and partisan support, which affect their appropriateness for a particular situation.

Spending as a policy instrument refers to all forms of financial transfer to individuals, firms and organisations from governments or from other individuals, firms, or organisations under governments’ direction. The purpose is to financially reward a desired activity, or to encourage a programme which supports government policy; subsidies and grants for medical research for example, or even as an instrument used directly to promote government policy as we shall see in the case study.

Expenditure offers numerous advantages as a policy instrument. It can be used by governments as an incentive to the target group to carry out a particular action which although it may have seen as desirable could not have achieved for various reasons. It is a flexible instrument to administer because the individual participants can decide for themselves how to respond in light of changing circumstances. Consequently, by allowing them to devise their own appropriate response, subsidies may encourage innovation. A...

Sign In Now to Read Entire Essay

Not a Member?   Create Your FREE Account »

Comments / Reviews

read full paper >>

Already a Member?   Login Now >

This paper and THOUSANDS of
other papers are FREE at PlanetPapers.

Uploaded by:   summersso

Date:   05/04/2002

Category:   Politics

Length:   8 pages (1,728 words)

Views:   1786

Report this Paper Save Paper
Professionally written papers on this topic:

Policy instruments - taxation, spending and regulation

  • China, Korea, Japan, and Education

    In nine pages the Asian system of education is examined in a contrast and comparison of structures in China, Korea, and Japan....

  • Study on Korea's Market Attractiveness

    In eight pages this paper examines the appeal of the Korean market for importing computer software. Six sources are cited in the ...

  • Thailand and Modernity

    In five pages this paper examines the evolution of modernity in Thailand from the early modern era until today. Five sources are ...

  • Caste System of India

    In ten pages this paper considers the history of the caste system in India. There is no bibliography included....

  • Changes and Conflicts Korean Immigrant Families in New York by Pyong Gap Min

    In five pages this paper discusses the evolving dynamic of Korean American families situated in NYC as portrayed in this sociologi...

  • Overview of Japan

    This paper consists of six pages and presents an informational overview of Japan in a consideration of culture, customs, rituals, ...

  • Economy of Asia

    In five pages this paper discusses the economy of Asia in a consideration of history, its present status and problems and the solu...

  • India's Tourism Industry

    In six pages this paper discusses how the India tourism industry is being bolstered by the government. Eleven sources are cited i...

  • The Korean War and the 38th Parallel

    Military and political objectives of the Korean conflict are examined in this paper, which looks at America's crossing of the 38th...

  • Indonesia and Chinese 'Scapegoats'

    In fifteen pages the Chinese living in Indonesia are discussed in terms of their large percentages of shop ownership despite a sma...

View more professionally written papers on this topic »